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The Microscope - Volume 56, Third Quarter 2008


Editorial | Microscope of the Month

Gary J. Laughlin
The Microscope 56 (3), p ii
Excerpt: Microscopists, generally speaking, are collectors. They collect all sorts of specimens, prepared slides, accessories and even microscopes. Antique microscopes are particularly fascinating and there is perhaps no more interesting collection on permanent display than that of The Golub Collection. In the period between 1995 and 2005, Dr. Orville J. Golub and his wife Ellina Marx Golub donated nearly 100 antique microscopes as gifts to the University of California Berkeley campus. 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th Century microscopes are represented here including simple, compound, tripod, Gould-style, Cuff-style, achromatic and solar microscopes.  Full article (PDF)

Inter/Micro 2008

Gary J. Laughlin
The Microscope 56 (3), pp 99 – 117
Abstract: The first Microscopy Symposium on Electron and Light Microscopy was developed by Walter C. McCrone (light microscopist in chemistry) and Charles Tufts (electron microscopist in physics) and was held June 10-12, 1948 at the Stevens Hotel, now the Hilton Chicago. These meetings continued to grow with inversely proportional titles including “MICROSCOPY SYMPOSIUM” then “MICRO” and now, thanks to Lucy McCrone who came up with the name: “INTER/MICRO” (only after the RMS reclaimed the “Micro” name for their meetings in the 1960s).  Full article (PDF)

Dr. George Sigerson, A Forgotten Pioneer in Microscopy for Occupational and Environmental Health, Part 2: Findings in Occupational Settings

Andrew A. Havics
The Microscope 56 (3), pp 119 – 124
Abstract: Dr. George Sigerson produced two papers in 1870 on his microscopical researches in the year 1869. These were accomplished to provide a correlation between the particles in the air and the health of inhabitants. One is titled “Micro-Atmospheric Researches” and focused on ambient air in the cities and countryside as well as along the coast and on the sea. The other is titled “Further Researches on the Atmosphere” and focused on occupational airborne exposure and settled dust. The second paper provided a detailed look at a doctor’s attempt to correlate health effects and breathing air in the workplace Similar to his first paper on “Micro-Atmospheric Researches,” the second paper, “Further Researches on the Atmosphere” is unlike surrogate measures of exposure used prior to this time period because it more closely looked for the underlying cause using the light microscope as a guiding tool.   Full article (PDF)

Skeleton Crystals

Meggan King, Andrew Bowen, Kelly Brinsko, and Sebastian Sparenga
The Microscope 56 (3), pp 125 – 130
Abstract: During the 2007 excavation season at the Byzantine city of Amorium located in central west Turkey, a burial place in the atrium of the lower city basilica was examined. It was noted by the archaeologists that the skeletal material of one of the occupants had developed tiny crystals on the surface. A small piece of the skull with the crystals present and some loose bone fragments were collected and submitted to the McCrone Research Institute for analysis. Initial observations were made using a stereomicroscope. Single crystals were examined using the polarized light microscope (PLM). Based on initial observations of the optical properties of these crystals, various microchemical tests were conducted. These crystals were found to contain calcium and phosphates. To determine the precise identity of the material, a single crystal was mounted on a spindle stage. By rotating the crystal around two axes we were able to determine the optic axial angle as orientations and magnitudes of the alpha, beta and gamma refractive indices.  Full article (PDF)

Investigation of Foreign Substances in Food

Jim Charbonneau
The Microscope 56 (3), pp 133 – 141
Abstract: A foreign substance can be any material allegedly found in a food product that is generally not part of the product formulation. In rare cases a foreign substance could include a natural ingredient added to excess so that it separates from the product. Foreign substances may take the form of mold, bone, fruit pits, herbaceous stems, rocks, insects and other animals, wood, paper, oil, grease, dirt, soil, plastics, metal, and glass.  Full article (PDF)

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